“ECHO basic methods” is composed of a series of methodological “pills” containing the most frequent analytical concepts and techniques used in ECHO.

ECHO methods are firstly meant to determine the magnitude of a phenomenon within a unit of analysis and then, estimate the variation of the phenomenon across units of analysis - systematic and unwarranted variation in a set of healthcare performance indicators across healthcare providers.

Since ECHO applies twodifferent approaches, geographic and hospital-specific,this document will detail both separately.


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Please cite this publication as:

European Collaboration for Healthcare Optimization (ECHO) www.echo-health.eu. Zaragoza (Spain): Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud-Instituto Investigación Sanitaria Aragón; c2011. Bernal-Delgado E, Thygesen LC, Martínez-Lizaga N, Comendeiro M on behalf of the ECHO consortium. Handbook on methodology: Measurement of the variation; 2014 Apr 27 [ accessed: date ]; Available from: http://www.echo-health.eu/ handbook/measuring_variation.html


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